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Coronavirus immunity could last years or decades

Coronavirus immunity could last years or decades
Coronavirus immunity could last years or decades
New research suggests immunity coronavirus may remain for a long time (Photo: AFP)

Covid-19 immunity may last more than eight months, potentially even years or decades, according to new research.

Researchers found that the levels of B and T cells, which are crucial to fighting off illness, remained stable up to eight months after initial infection.

The slow rate of decline also suggests these immune cells may persist in the body for long periods of time.

While the research has not been peer-reviewed or published in a scientific journal, the study is the most comprehensive and long-range look at the body’s immune response to coronavirus so far.

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Shane Crotty, a virologist at the La Jolla Institute of Immunology who co-led the new study, told the New York Times: ‘That amount of memory would likely prevent the vast majority of people from getting hospitalized disease, severe disease, for many years.’

Researchers took blood samples from 185 patients, between the ages of 19 to 81, who had tested positive for the coronavirus in the pandemic’s first months.

The US-based research team looked at four parts of the immune system, to build an overall picture of the immune response rather than individual components.

The parts were coronavirus antibodies, B cells that produce antibodies and two kinds of T cells which kill infected cells.

BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND - JUNE 05: Test tubes to be used for blood samples sit on table at a antibody testing program at the Hollymore Ambulance Hub of the West Midlands Ambulance Service, operated by the West Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust, on June 5, 2020 in Birmingham, England. The British government is providing antibody testing to NHS and care home staff as part of the first phase of its antibody testing programme. The blood tests, which can only be performed my trained medical practitioners, detect the presence of antibodies to COVID-19 to determine if a person has unknowingly contracted the virus and consequently developed an immune response. (Photo by Simon Dawson - Pool/Getty Images)
The government has yet to roll out a comprehensive antibody testing program (Photo: Getty)

The scientists found that five months after the initial infection, ‘immune memory consisting of at least three immunological compartments was measurable in ~90% of subjects’.

This immune memory, consisting of various antibodies, was also found to be ‘durable’, declining very slowly – which is consistent with the possibility they might remain for years, or even decades.

These encouraging findings have been supported by evidence coming out of other research groups, such as immune ‘memory’ cells remaining for at least three months after coronavirus infection.

Last week, German researchers found that recovered Covid-19 patients also have protective ‘killer’ immune cells that exist even when antibodies are difficult to detect.

Leading immunologists suggest that these results all point towards the novel coronavirus acting as a ‘conventional’ disease, once the first few critical weeks have been passed.

Though a small number of patients were found not to have long-lasting immunity, possibly after being exposed to lower amounts of the virus, researchers have suggested vaccines would mean this isn’t a problem.

The high number of patients showing long term immunity also indicates vaccines may not have to be administered each year, as the flu vaccine currently does.

Recent studies have found that SARS survivors (closely related to the 2019 coronavirus) still carry immune cells more than 17 years after the first infection.

Though a recent study from Imperial College London found immunity to Covid-19 may decline over time, it’s not clear whether this will lead to patients being widely susceptible to reinfection.

Some immunologists suggest that comparisons to the common cold, another kind of coronavirus, are inaccurate due to the much larger amount of genetic variations, as compared to the novel coronavirus.

While others have noted it’s normal for antibody levels to drop over time, and that they form only one part of the immune system.